SDG 4: Quality Education
4.1.1 – Number or proportion of education facilities damaged or destroyed by explosive weapons
In the last decade, AOAV EVM data shows that there have been 36 grenade attacks on schools, universities and educational facilities. 15 of these attacks occurred in Pakistan. During Pakistan’s 2018 elections, eight schools were attacked with hand grenades, including a girls’ primary school in Kushak Village.
Education occupies a political space and schools are visible symbols of state presence with teachers often acting as community leaders and have therefore been a target of terror-inspired attacks. In addition schools are often are used as polling stations and thus targeted- in 2013 a grenade was thrown at Cabingan Primary School in Marawi City , the Philippines which was being used as polling centre.
4.1.2 – Number or proportion of educators killed or injured by explosive weapons, disaggregated by gender
None recorded, if educators were killed and injured in the blast It would have been incidental.
Of the 36 grenade attacks at schools and educational facilities in the last decade recorded by AOAV, 228 civilians were killed and injured, 40 of which were women and 86 of which were children. We can assume that a number of these casualties were educators.
4.2.1 – Number or proportion of education facilities with service disruptions, including internet
The link between grenade use and educational service disruptions, while likely to exist, requires further investigation to quantify.
4.2.2 – Number of schooling days lost
Explosive damage to education facilities can lead to school disruptions. However, even when launched directly at a school, a single grenade is unlikely to render it out of use due to its limited range, thus the number of schooling days lost globally from grenade attacks alone is likely to be negligible.
4.2.3 – Number or proportion of children without access to schooling, disaggregated by gender and age
The impact of explosive violence on education is well documented. In the countries which have witnessed the greatest number of grenades over the past decade, it is likely that insecurity and conflict have had a significant impact on children’s access to schooling. Despite this, there is currently a paucity of data highlighting the extent to which specific weapon types can limit access to schooling in these countries. Further research is required on the subject.
1 – Number, proportion or rate of students who drop out of schooling, disaggregated by gender
2 – Proportion of students achieving at least a minimum proficiency level in reading and mathematics, disaggregated by gender
3 – Proportion of population in a given age group achieving at least a fixed level of proficiency in functional (a) literacy and (b) numeracy skills, disaggregated by gender
Attributing third-level impacts to this weapon type is inherently difficult. AOAV found evidence that in areas at risk from grenade attacks on schools, such as parts of Pakistan, child attendance is low: in 2018, 32% of Pakistani girls did not attend school and 21% of boys. However, the extent to which grenades alone can be held accountable is highly questionable, given the range of other factors at play.
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